- Biomass solid briquette fuel
The so-called biomass solid briquette refers to the use of lignin in the biomass as a binder under the action of external force to compress the scattered agricultural and forestry biomass such as straw, wood chips, or branches into rods, blocks, or pellets with a certain shape. And density of forming fuel. Biomass such as straw, wood chips, sawdust, etc. have a loose structure, low energy density, and a thermal efficiency of only about 10%, and are difficult to store and transport. After the biomass is solidified and formed, the volume compression ratio is 7-10 times, and the combustion efficiency is increased by 20%-30% on average, which is convenient for storage, transportation and processing. In 2011, there were more than 680 biomass solid briquettes production plants in China.
The “Medium and Long-term Development Plan for Renewable Energy” points out that by 2020, biomass solid briquettes will become a high-quality fuel that is commonly used. The production of biomass solid briquettes includes two methods: one is the decentralized method, which uses scattered and miniaturized processing methods in the vast rural areas, and uses crop stalks nearby. It is mainly used to meet farmers’ own energy needs, and the remaining amount is used as commercial fuel. Sale; the other is a centralized method, in areas where conditions permit, build large-scale biomass solid briquettes processing plants, implement large-scale production, and provide biomass commercial fuels for large industrial users or urban and rural residents. The annual utilization of biomass solid briquettes across the country has reached 50 million tons.
- Biomass gas
Biomass gas is the use of crop straw, forest waste, edible fungus residue, poultry manure and all combustible materials as raw materials to convert into combustible gaseous energy. Biomass gas mainly includes biogas and biomass gasification gas.
Biogas refers to the use of anaerobic digestion to convert biomass such as organic waste, waste crops and human feces into fuel gas. Its main component is methane. After purification and compression, biogas can enter natural gas pipelines and can also be used as vehicle fuel.
Biomass gasification gas refers to the use of thermochemical methods to convert biomass into fuel gas, that is, incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of biomass under high temperature conditions to produce combustible gas, which contains carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and hydrogen-rich compounds .
By the end of 2005, there were 18 million household biogas digesters nationwide, with an annual output of about 7 billion cubic meters of biogas; about 1,500 large-scale livestock and poultry farm biogas projects and industrial organic wastewater biogas projects were built, with an annual output of about 1 billion cubic meters of biogas Meter. Biogas technology has developed from pure energy utilization to waste treatment and multi-level comprehensive utilization of biomass, and is widely integrated with breeding and planting industries, becoming an important way to develop green ecological agriculture and consolidate the achievements of ecological construction. The components of the biogas project have achieved standardized production, and the biogas technical service system has been relatively complete.
In rural areas, the main promotion of household biogas, especially biogas technology combined with agricultural production. Develop centralized gas supply in small and medium-sized cities and towns with large-scale livestock and poultry farm biogas projects and industrial wastewater biogas projects as gas sources. By 2020, about 80 million households (about 300 million people) will use biogas as the main domestic gas for rural residents, and the annual biogas utilization will be about 30 billion cubic meters. We should make full use of biogas and agricultural and forestry waste gasification technology, increase the proportion of gas used in rural areas, and take biomass gasification technology as an important measure to solve the environmental management of rural waste and industrial organic waste.
- Bio-liquid fuel
Bio-liquid fuels refer to liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, biodiesel, and bio-aviation kerosene produced from biomass resources, and are mainly used to replace petrochemical fuels as transportation fuels. With the tight supply and rising prices in the international oil market, the development of bio-liquid fuels such as bio-fuel ethanol and bio-diesel has become an important direction for replacing petroleum fuels.
Currently, the bio-liquid fuels produced and used in China mainly include fuel ethanol and biodiesel. In 2013, China’s total fuel ethanol output exceeded 2 million tons, becoming the world’s third largest biofuel ethanol producer after the United States and Brazil; in 2013, biodiesel made from waste oil from the catering industry, oil residue from oil mills, and oil crops as raw materials The production capacity reaches 1 million to 1.2 million tons.
According to the characteristics of China’s land resources and agricultural production, reasonable selection and scientific cultivation of energy plants, construction of large-scale raw material supply bases and large-scale bio-liquid fuel processing enterprises. No longer increase the production capacity of fuel ethanol using grain as raw materials, and rationally use non-grain biomass raw materials to produce fuel ethanol. Focus on the development of fuel ethanol technology using cassava, sweet potato, sweet sorghum, etc. as raw materials, as well as biodiesel production technology using oil crops such as Jatropha, Pistacia chinensis, tung tree, and cottonseed as raw materials, and gradually establish a waste oil recovery system for catering and other industries . From a long-term perspective, it is necessary to actively develop bio-liquid fuel technology using cellulosic biomass as a raw material. At present, several pilot projects for fuel ethanol using sweet sorghum as raw materials have been established in Northeast, Shandong and other places; in Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan and other places, a number of pilot projects for fuel ethanol using hey crops as raw materials have been built. ; In Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hebei and other places, a number of biodiesel pilot projects using oil plants such as Jatropha, Pistacia, and Tung Oil as raw materials have been built. By 2020, the annual utilization of biofuel ethanol will reach 10 million tons, and the annual utilization of biodiesel will reach 2 million tons, which will replace approximately 10 million tons of refined oil annually.