Primary energy can be further divided into two categories: renewable energy and non-renewable energy. Renewable energy has been formed in nature for hundreds of millions of years. It cannot be recovered in the short term. With large-scale development and utilization, its reserves are becoming less and less. Finally, the exhausted energy is called non-renewable energy, including coal, crude oil, natural gas, and oil. Shale, nuclear energy, etc., they cannot be regenerated. Renewable energy includes solar energy, water energy, wind energy, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, ocean temperature difference energy, etc. Affected by global climate change and rising oil prices, the development and utilization of renewable energy has received extensive attention from the international community. They have put forward clear development goals, formulated policies and regulations to support the development of renewable energy, so that the level of renewable energy application technology is continuously upgraded and improved, and the scale of related industries is gradually expanded, so that renewable energy can be used to promote energy diversification and achieve sustainable development. Important energy source.
In 1997, the European Union proposed that in the energy consumption structure, the proportion of renewable energy in primary energy consumption from 1996 to 2010 should be increased from 6% to 12%. In the total power generation, the proportion of renewable energy power generation should be increased from 14%. Increase to 22%. At the beginning of 2007, the European Union drafted a new development goal, requiring that by 2020, renewable energy consumption accounted for 20% of all energy consumption, and renewable energy power generation accounted for 30% of all power generation. The United States, Brazil, Japan, Australia, India and other countries have also formulated clear development goals to promote the development of renewable energy.
Renewable energy sources with great resource potential and good development prospects in China mainly include hydropower, biomass energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy and ocean energy. After years of development, China has made great progress in renewable energy. Wind power, photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal utilization, and efficient use of biomass energy have also made significant progress. These are all for adjusting the energy structure, protecting the environment, and promoting the economy. And social development has made a significant contribution.
Hydropower refers to engineering construction and production operations that convert water energy into electrical energy. Water energy is an inexhaustible and inexhaustible clean energy. It only uses the energy endowed by nature, does not consume water, and does not produce pollution. Hydropower is currently the most mature renewable energy power generation technology and is widely used all over the world. At present, the development of hydropower resources in economically developed countries has basically been completed, and hydropower construction is mainly concentrated in developing countries. According to the results of the 2011 China Hydropower Resources Census, China’s hydropower technology can be developed at 540 million kilowatts, and the annual power generation capacity is 2.5 trillion kWh; the economically developable capacity is 400 million kilowatts, and the annual power generation capacity is 1.75 trillion kilowatts. Time. At present, China’s hydropower development capacity has reached about 52% of the technologically developable volume, and power generation accounts for about 40% of the technologically developable volume. As of the end of 2015, China’s hydropower installed capacity reached 320 million kilowatts, accounting for 22.2% of the country’s total installed power capacity, ranking first in the world. The national hydropower installed capacity increased by 21.85 million kilowatts throughout the year, and the annual hydropower generation exceeded the trillion mark, reaching 1066.1 billion kilowatt-hours, a year-on-year increase of 18.0%.
- Wind energy
Wind power is also called wind power or wind power. According to the latest evaluation of wind energy resources, the usable wind energy resources on land in China are about 300 million kilowatts, and the usable wind energy resources in coastal waters are 700 million kilowatts, totaling about 1 billion kilowatts. Wind energy resources are mainly distributed in the northeast, northern and northwestern regions of North China, as well as the eastern coastal land, islands and coastal waters. In recent years, the single-unit capacity of grid-connected wind turbines has continued to increase. With the technological advancement of wind power and the expansion of its application scale, the cost of wind power has continued to decline, and its economics have been very close to conventional energy. According to a report issued by the Global Wind Energy Council, in 2014, global wind power installed capacity was 51.477 million kilowatts, an increase of 44% year-on-year. According to statistics released by the China Wind Energy Association and the National Energy Administration, China’s newly installed wind power capacity reached 30.5 million kilowatts in 2015, and the cumulative installed capacity reached 145 million kilowatts, a year-on-year increase of 26.6%, of which grid-connected capacity was nearly 100 million kilowatts, accounting for all 7% of the installed capacity of power generation, the development of wind power in other countries in 2014 is as follows: European wind power installations achieved a small increase in 2014, with new installed capacity reaching 12.82 million kilowatts, which is slightly lower than the record high installed capacity in 2012; Germany The newly installed capacity of 5.28 million kilowatts surpassed its previous installation record; the installed capacity of Britain, Sweden, and France reached 1.74 million, 1.05 million, and 1.04 million kilowatts respectively. At the same time, wind power technology in Africa has also begun to develop rapidly, and the total installed capacity in Africa has reached The largest wind farm in Africa, the Moroccan wind farm (300,000 kilowatts), was connected to the grid and put into operation. South Africa’s wind power started steadily and achieved a new installed capacity of 560,000 kilowatts; the total installed capacity in Latin America reached 3.74 million kilowatts. Among them, Brazil continues to lead the development of wind power in Latin America with 2.47 million kilowatts of newly installed capacity.