Drawing on the experience of biomass energy development in Europe and the United States, China will build a number of cascade comprehensive utilization biomass energy demonstration projects and several demonstration areas to promote the use of biomass energy from a single raw material and product model to a cycle of raw material diversification and product diversification. The economic cascade comprehensive utilization mode enables the utilization of biomass resources to obtain better comprehensive benefits.
1. Cellulose feedstock biofuel polygeneration demonstration project
Actively promote the industrialization demonstration of comprehensive utilization of agricultural and forestry residues (cellulose) to produce bioethanol as the main product. Build a demonstration area for comprehensive utilization of cellulosic biofuels, make use of the abundant local crop straw resources, and build a demonstration project for the comprehensive utilization of industrial-scale cellulose hydrolysis to prepare liquid fuels, bio-based chemical products, and alcohol-electricity co-production.
The project of “Key Technology and Industrial Demonstration of Refining Lignocellulosic Raw Materials such as Straw”, chaired by researcher Chen Hongzhang of the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, from the multi-component characteristics of raw materials, the integration of transformation process, and the structure and function of manpower, proposes a new way of biomass refining of “selective component separation – functional and economical utilization”, to realize the research idea of stratified and multi-level transformation and integration of biomass such as straw, and realize the full-component biorefinery of lignocellulosic raw materials such as straw. The whole set of technology and its process has reached the international leading level.
Relying on demonstration projects, promote the large-scale production of bioethanol and other chemical products that replace petroleum-based raw materials, produce biogas and biogas power generation by anaerobic fermentation of wastewater, or use wastewater to cultivate microalgae energy crops, and the final biomass residue is used for combustion power generation and heating, and the overall comprehensive utilization of biomass is realized.
The “Innovation and Demonstration of Key Technologies for Bio-Co-conversion of Forest Cellulosic Ethanol” undertaken by Central South University of Forestry and Technology was launched in Changsha. Central South University of Forestry Science and Technology took the lead and cooperated with three project cooperation units of the Chinese Academy of Forestry Research Institute of Forest Products Chemical Industry, Changde United Bioenergy Research Institute, and Shaanxi Derong Technology Information Development Co., Ltd. to jointly overcome the difficult problem of bioethanol production technology.
2. Microalgae Biofuel Polygeneration Demonstration Project
In suitable areas, industrial wastewater and waste gas rich in CO2 will be used, and advanced breeding technology will be adopted to build oil-bearing microalgae large-scale farms, and carry out demonstrations of microalgae biofuel poly-production.
Relying on demonstration projects, we will promote the production of microalgae biofuels on a commercial scale, and at the same time produce high value-added nutritional algal flour and feed algal residues and other bio-based products. Through the co-production of microalgae biofuel, the organic combination of CO2 emission reduction, industrial sewage treatment, bioenergy preparation, and bio-based product development will be realized, and a circular economy demonstration base of multi-industry combination will be built.
In July 2012, China’s first “microalgae cultivation demonstration device” using refinery CO2 waste gas as carbon source was built and put into operation in Sinopec Huajiazhuang Refinery Branch. The microalgae cultivation demonstration base covers an area of 500 square meters, which can well meet the environmental conditions of microalgae cultivation, ensure CO2, emission reduction and the development of microalgae cultivation experiments. The demonstration base has complete functions and normal operation, and can carry out continuous large-scale microalgae cultivation, harvesting, biomass extraction and other full-process tests. It provides a demonstration for the technological development of microalgae biomass energy, and also lays a technical foundation for realizing the goal of reducing CO2 20% in refinery flue gas by using microalgae cultivation.
The establishment of Sinopec’s Huajiazhuang Refining and Chemical Microalgae Breeding Demonstration Base has laid the foundation for the development of CO2 emission reduction in the refinery and the development of microalgae bioenergy technology. The successful development of this technology will provide support for China to achieve the goal of reducing CO2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40% to 45% by 2020.
3. Biomass thermochemical conversion to prepare liquid fuel and polygeneration demonstration project
Accelerate the technological progress of biomass gasification to synthesize alcohol ethers, biomass pyrolysis liquefaction and direct catalytic conversion to prepare hydrocarbon fuels. Build a demonstration area for the production of liquid fuels by biomass thermochemistry, and use various agricultural and forestry residual resources to carry out 10,000-ton biomass thermochemical production of liquid fuels, as well as multi-generation system demonstration projects such as gas, heat, electricity, biomass charcoal, and polyol bio-based chemicals, to achieve low-cost and large-scale comprehensive utilization of biomass resources.
Relying on demonstration projects, breakthroughs in key technologies such as large-scale biomass gasification, integration of advanced and efficient purification and component modulation, catalysts for bio-oil refining and processing, and corresponding reactive distillation and separation will reduce the cost of biofuel production.
Combined with chemical project engineering and industrial park heat demand, integrated biochemical technology to carry out comprehensive refining, produce biofuels such as biodiesel, naphtha and aviation kerosene, as well as series of products such as heat, electricity, fine chemical raw materials and products, and pharmaceutical products, expand the application market of related products, comprehensively promote the comprehensive utilization of various agricultural and forestry biomass resources, and improve the economy and competitiveness of biomass energy and comprehensive utilization. At the end of 2015, a number of industrial demonstration zones for the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid fuels and poly-generation circular economy using agricultural and forestry residues as raw materials were formed.
4. Large-scale biogas comprehensive utilization demonstration project
Accelerate the technological progress of large-scale biogas projects, and improve the manufacturing level of complete sets of large-scale biogas production equipment, biogas purification equipment, biogas pipeline gas supply and canned equipment. In areas with resources, markets and other conditions, build a large-scale industrial demonstration zone for the comprehensive utilization of biogas with mixed raw materials, and import the biogas into the urban natural gas pipeline network. Set up biogas supply service stations in towns and villages to provide living gas to surrounding residents by supplying canned biogas; explore the use of biogas as a fuel for urban public transport vehicles: promote the comprehensive utilization of biogas slurry and biogas residues in large-scale biogas projects, expand the organic fertilizer market, support the development of organic vegetables and fruit planting industries, and develop large-scale biogas comprehensive utilization circular economy ecological parks.